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中英文对照案例阅读:本杰里 善因营销"冰"天下

http://biz.163.com 2005-07-05 20:07:47 来源: 全球商业经典   网友评论 0 条

 @开家冰淇淋店一定很好玩

决定了一起创业之后,杰里和本现在得决定他们想做什么生意。其中一个点子,是成为跑遍全美的卡车司机。但是,既然两人都好吃,他们也觉得,做吃的这一行可能会很好玩。

第一个点子,是成立一家叫做UBS的公司(意思是:联合培果服务),公司提供顾客“新鲜宾果+奶油乳酪+《纽约时报》周日版”送到家的服务。惟一的问题是,他们不知道公司星期一到星期六要做什么。他们也发现,做宾果的机器要价4万美金。

第二个点子是做冰淇淋。虽然从来没有实际研究过制冰设备的成本,杰里和本假定做冰淇淋一定比宾果便宜。于是两人出5块美金,注册了宾州州立大学提供的冰淇淋制作函授课程,然后就开始研究要把店开在什么地方。

天气热的地方显然对冰淇淋事业比较有利。惟一的问题是,大部分温暖的城市早就有自产自销的冰淇淋店了。所以,他们最后搬到沙拉多加泉,也就是本的母校史基摩尔学院的所在地。

两人开冰淇淋店的计划在八月碰到了一个小问题,那就是原来选订的开店地点沙拉多加市新开了一家冰淇淋店。杰里和本认为,他们另觅开店地点比较好,地点最后决定在佛蒙特州有4万人口的伯灵顿小镇,该镇也相当靠近有12,000名学生的佛蒙特大学。惟一的缺点是,伯灵顿离加拿大南部边界只有40英里,因此气候相当冷。杰里和本还是不受这个缺点影响,他们搬到了一个离伯灵顿车程30分钟的小镇南喜洛。

@An Ice Cream Shop Would Be Fun

Having decided to go into business together, Jerry and Ben now had to decide what type of business they wanted to start. One idea was to become cross-country truck drivers. However, since they both loved to eat, they also thought some business involving food might be fun.

Their first idea was to form a company called UBS (standing for United Bagel Service) which would home deliver fresh bagels and cream cheese with the Sunday edition of The New York Times. The only problem was they couldn’t figure out what the company would do the other six days of the week. They also discovered bagel making equipment would cost them $40,000.

Their second choice for a business was making ice cream, which they never actually got around to researching the cost of equipment but they simply assumed must be cheaper than making bagels. Jerry and Ben invested in a $5 correspondence course on ice cream making offered by Penn State University, and started researching where they should locate their new enterprise.

Obviously, a warm climate is desirable for an ice cream business. The only problem was most warm cities already had home made ice cream shops. Therefore, they ended up moving to Saratoga Springs, the home of one of Ben’s old universities Skidmore College.

Their plan to open their ice cream shop struck a slight snag in August, however, when a new homemade ice cream shop opened in Saratoga. Jerry and Ben decided they would be better off opening somewhere else, and they finally decided on locating in Burlington, Vermont—a small town of 40,000 people but very close to the University of Vermont with 12,000 students. The only disadvantage was that Burlington was only 40 miles south of the Canadian border, and therefore had quite a cold climate. Unperturbed, however, Jerry and Ben moved to a town called South Hero, about a 30-minute drive from Burlington.

那时是1977年9月底,杰里和本在伯灵顿寻找一间出租的店面的同时,他们觉得必须得有一份事业计划书,才能向银行申请贷款。两人的老朋友杰夫.弗尔曼刚好有一份纽约披萨店的事业计划书,杰里和本只把计划书中的披萨单位“片”,改成“甜筒”就照用不误。

和镇上的银行家简短谈过之后,银行家说服杰里和本得在佛蒙特冬天时,在菜单上增加冰淇淋以外的餐点。于是他们决定修改菜单,增加法式可丽饼,里面有包馅的薄煎饼。

#核心思想

“我们在这行没有什么优势,既没有资产或抵押品,又人生地不熟;年轻、未婚,也没有做生意的经验。”

─杰里.格林菲尔德

他们的新公司最后叫作“本杰里”,计划书里写着:“本杰里冰淇淋与可丽饼店提供自制冰淇淋、优格冰淇淋、圣代、餐点与甜可丽饼。本杰里将吸引喜欢在温暖友善的气氛下,享用高品质、好口味与营养食品的消费者。”

杰里和本向银行申请了2万美元的贷款,并投资8,000美元在新生意上。他们预估头一年的营业额为90,000美元,税前获利为7,746美元。幸运的是,与他们往来的银行里,刚好有位经理希望鼓励年轻人创业,因此杰里和本只要取得SBA(小型企业协会)的担保,银行经理就会批准这笔放款。SBA同意提供保证,条件是本杰里冰淇淋能找到适当的店面。

不幸的是,伯灵顿惟一找得到的店面是一处废弃的加油站。更糟的是,杰里和本只能拿到一年的租约,因为这样达不到SBA的条件,银行也无法批准2万美元的贷款。然而银行经理还是拨给杰里和本4,000美元的贷款,以他们买的生财用具作抵押品。这表示,两人的总营运资金为12,000美元,杰里、本和银行各出4,000美元。虽然这并不完美,他们还是决定接受银行的贷款。

It was now late September, 1977. While Jerry and Ben looked for a shop to rent in Burlington, they decided they would need a business plan to show to the bank to get some funding. An old friend of theirs, Jeff Furman, had a copy of a business plan used by a pizza parlor in New York, and Jerry and Ben adapted that by substituting the word “cones” wherever the word “slice” had been previously.

A quick discussion with a local banker convinced them their shop had to offer something other than frozen desserts during the Vermont winters, and they decided to round out their menu by adding crepes—thin, filled pancakes.

“We didn’t have a lot going for us. We had no assets or collateral to speak of. We were new to the area. We were young. We weren’t married. And we had no business experience.”

-- Jerry Greenfield

Their business plan eventually named the new enterprise Ben & Jerry’s and stated, “Ben & Jerry’s is an Ice Cream and Crepe Parlor featuring homemade ice cream, frozen yogurt, sundaes and fountain drinks as well as main dish and desert crepes. Ben & Jerry’s will be appealing to people who appreciate high quality, good tasting and nutritious food in a warm, friendly atmosphere.”

Jerry and Ben applied for a $20,000 loan from the bank, and stated they would be contributing $8,000 to the venture. They projected first year sales of $90,000 with a pre-tax net profit of $7,746. Luckily, the bank they applied to had a manager who believed in encouraging young people to go into business, and he approved the loan if they could get the Small Business Agency to guarantee it. The SBA agreed to provide that guarantee contingent on a suitable location being secured by Ben & Jerry’s.

Unfortunately, the only Burlington shop that was available was an old disused service station. To make matters worse, Jerry and Ben could only secure a 1-year lease on the property. Since this did not meet the SBA criteria, the bank was unable to approve their $20,000 loan. The manager did, however, offer to give Jerry and Ben a $4,000 loan, collateralized by the equipment they were buying. That meant Ben & Jerry’s would be launched with total working capital of $12,000—four thousand dollars each from Jerry, Ben and the bank. It wasn’t ideal, but Jerry and Ben decided to accept the bank’s offer.

本杰里自制冰淇淋公司在1977年12月成立于佛蒙特州,因为本的名字放在公司名称的前面,因此就由杰里担任总经理。他们预定在1978年2月取得加油站使用权,再花三个月重新装潢,五月正式开店营业。

杰里与本积极投入店面装潢,为开幕做准备,就算缺乏营建的技巧也难不倒他们。他们雇用了一名当地的建筑包商来帮忙,因为没有钱可以支付,所以杰里和本提供包商“终生”免费吃冰作交换,或至少供应到冰淇淋店关门大吉为止。讶异的是,包商接受了,他也成为冰淇淋公司的第三位董事,以符合佛蒙特州法律要求新公司至少要有三名董事的规定。

杰里和本把加油站办公室变成顾客能坐下来享用餐点的地方,将加油站附设的修车间隔成两半,前半部是服务区,有服务台和冰柜;后半部则是厨房,内有炉子、冷冻库、煎可丽饼的铁板,以及两个工作台。

除了忙整修店面的工作,试着以免费的冰淇淋雇请建商和水管工帮忙之外,杰里和本也在想着该怎么做冰淇淋。在这一点上,他们也像整修房子一样,完全不受缺乏经验的阻碍。

冰淇淋的混合成份如下:鲜奶油、牛奶、蔗糖、香料(例如:水果、各种萃取物或坚果)、蛋黄,以及天然安定剂(改善成品的质地)。在混合的过程中,也要加入空气。在冰淇淋这一行里,空气在冰淇淋混制过程中的量,称之为“含气量”。一般的冰淇淋商品,有百分之百的含气量,而自制的冰淇淋只有约20%到40%。在原料混合约30分钟后,可以加入饼干或糖果碎片,然后再次混合。混合好的成品,接着送进冷冻库,等着冰淇淋变硬。

杰里与本设法买到一台要价1,500美元的二手制冰机(或称冷冻机),一次能生产四加仑半的冰淇淋。他们还有一台小一点的制冰机,是用来试作冰淇淋用的。

Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Inc. was incorporated in Vermont on December 17, 1977 with Jerry Greenfield as president since Ben Cohen’s name had been put first in the company’s name. They were scheduled to take possession of their service station building in February 1978 with the aim of opening for business three months later in May once all the renovations were completed.

To ready the business, Jerry and Ben plunged enthusiastically into the renovations, unencumbered by previous construction skills. They enlisted a local building contractor to help, and since they had no funds to pay him, offered him free ice cream for life—or at least for as long as they stayed in business anyway. Amazingly, he accepted, and also served as the third member of the board of directors of the new company to meet Vermont State requirements for three directors.

Jerry and Ben turned the service station’s office into the customer seating area, and divided a bay into half. In the front was their serving area, complete with counters and dip cases. The kitchen with a stove, freezer cabinet, crepe griddle and two work tables was in the back of the redesigned bay.

In between working on the shop and trying to get help by offering free future ice cream to the builder and the plumber, Jerry and Ben also tried to figure out how to make ice cream. In this, as in their building skills, they approached the task completely unfettered by previous experience.

Ice cream consists of a “mix” made up of a combination of cream, milk, cane sugar, flavoring additives (such as fruit, extracts or nuts), egg yolks and a natural stabilizer (which improves the end product’s texture). During the mixing process, air is also introduced into the mix. In the ice cream business, the amount of air in the mix is termed the “overrun.” Commercial ice cream has an overrun of 100-percent, while homemade ice cream typically has an overrun of only 20- to 40-percent. After the mix has been blended for around 30 minutes, chunks of cookies or candy can be added in and reblended. The finished ice cream batch is then sent to a hardening freezer.

Jerry and Ben managed to buy a secondhand ice cream mixer or “freezer” with a capacity to churn out four-and-a-half gallons of ice cream at a time for $1,500. They also had a small freezer which they used to whip up some test batches of ice cream.

# 核心思想

“我们原先的想法是开一间‘属于大家’的冰淇淋店。我们想生产最好的冰淇淋,让每个人都吃得起。”

─杰里.葛林菲尔德

因为本“味觉”迟钝,所以冰淇淋如果不下重口味、放很多饼干等碎片与添加物,本就完全尝不出味道来,结果最后他们生产出浓郁、绵密、滑顺、细致与耐嚼的冰淇淋。因为杰里和本两人都坚持只用上等材料,冰淇淋的制造成本也相当高。

冰淇淋店盛大开幕的日子终于快到了。杰里和本也在地方报纸上刊登广告,向大家宣布开幕的时间。不幸的是,广告上的开幕日期搞错了,本来应该是在1978年的5月12日,却写成了5月5日,但这也没有让杰里和本大感困扰,他们打电话给所有的亲朋好友,央请大家一起协助店面提早一个星期开幕。

冰淇淋店有几个小技术问题,包括得再次粉刷内墙,因为本对自己原先挑选的漆色粉刷效果不满意。本这个到了最后关头喜欢东修西改的习惯,和他的“味痴”一样,预示了杰里和本的未来。

“Our original concept for the store was ‘Ice Cream for the people.’ We wanted to make the best ice cream available and sell it at a price that everyone could afford.”

-- Jerry Greenfield

Since Ben had trouble tasting anything, their ice cream had to be heavily flavored and have lots of chunks and add-ins before Jerry could tell what flavor it was. Eventually, they ended up with an ice cream that was rich, creamy, smooth, dense and chewy. It was also rather expensive to make, since Jerry and Ben both insisted in using only the finest ingredients.

Finally, the grand opening was near. Unfortunately, when they placed an ad in the local paper announcing the opening, there was a bit of a mix up and the date was advertised as May 5, 1978 instead of May 12, 1978. Not letting that minor detail deter them, Jerry and Ben called all their friends and everyone else they knew to make a frenzied effort to open on the new date.

There were a few minor technical hitches, including having to repaint the inside walls a second time because Ben didn’t like the color he had originally picked out once he saw the job finished. Like an inability to taste anything, this would turn out to be an omen of things to come.

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